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夏季勿“牛飲”,當心“水中毒”

炎炎夏日,人在大量出汗后,需要補充水分,但是過量飲水會引起身體的不適,甚至“水中毒”, 喝水也能中毒,這可能是你第一次聽說吧,但它確確實實發生在我們身邊。美國一女子在喝水比賽中,每15分鐘狂飲225毫升水,回家后數小時因水中毒身亡。

  我們經常會得到“多喝水”的忠告:它能清潔皮膚、減少疲勞和集中精力。但是這位美國女子在喝水比賽后死亡的事實說明,對身體有好處的水喝太多了也會要命。人體在短時間內攝取大量水分,會造成重要的電解質被稀釋,引發腦部水腫、痙攣、昏迷,甚至死亡。

  夏季喝水也得講究科學,尤其是劇烈運動出汗后,不要大量的飲水,尤其是純凈水。出汗后人體的鈣,鹽,磷大量隨汗液丟失,體內電解質溶解度下降,這個時候不光補充水,同時要補充鉀、鈉等電解質,如果喝大量純凈水,水分經腸胃吸取后又經過汗排出體外,大量出汗就會使血液中的鹽分越失越多。血液中的鹽含量低,吸水能力也就降低,水分會經過細胞膜進入細胞內,過剩的水分會使細胞膨脹,從而引起脫水低鈉癥,也就是“水中毒”。當飲用過量水分時,血液內的電解質因為被水分排出體外而降至低于安全水平的濃度,影響到腦部的運作,可能會致命。

  保健專家提示,防范水中毒,要做到科學飲水,一是適量飲用淡鹽水,補充體液鹽分;二是緩慢飲水,少飲多次,一次喝的量不要太多,大概一百到兩百毫升左右;三是不喝溫度過低的水。保健專家還提示,夏天需要多喝水,早晨晨起時喝一杯,可以洗腸子、利大便;中午喝一杯可以緩降血壓;傍晚喝一杯可以沖洗膀胱、清利小便;晚上睡前半小時喝一杯,有利于養心安神。

 


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